Intranasal S-ketamine as an alternative to patient controlled analgesia in spine surgery
The analgesic effect of combined treatment with intranasal S-ketamine and intranasal midazolam compared with morphine patient-controlled analgesia in spinal surgery patients: a pilot studyJ Pain Res. 2015 Feb 13;8:87-94.
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22 patients scheduled for spinal decompression were randomized to receive either an S-ketamine intranasal spray or intravenous morphine PCA for postoperative pain. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of and evaluate noninferiority of S-ketamine spray combined with a midazolam intranasal spray, when compared to morphine PCA, on pain, bolus demand and delivery, complications, and 5...