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Mechanism of action

  • Exhibits both analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects
  • Reduces prostaglandin synthesis

Additional Information

  • NSAIDs can be administered topically or orally
  • Oral NSAIDs are categorized as either non-selective (or traditional) NSAIDs or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors
  • Typically prescribed to patients after non-pharmacological approaches no longer provide symptomatic relief
  • With oral formulations, there are concerns regarding their long-term use due to their gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side-effects


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  2. Hochberg MC, Martel-Pelletier J, Monfort J, et al. Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxib. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2016;75(1):37-44.
  3. Reginster JY, Malmstrom K, Mehta A, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of etoricoxib compared with naproxen in two, 138-week randomised studies of patients with osteoarthritis. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2007;66(7):945-951.
  4. Tannenbaum H, Berenbaum F, Reginster JY, et al. Lumiracoxib is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a 13 week, randomised, double blind study versus placebo and celecoxib. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2004;63(11):1419-1426.
  5. Williams HJ, Ward JR, Egger MJ, et al. Comparison of naproxen and acetaminophen in a two-year study of treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis and rheumatism. 1993;36(9):1196-1206.